The confused teaching of Dr Caroline Leaf

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Dr Leaf released her latest e-mail newsletter today.  I decided to follow up with a brief review of this week’s instalment after her last e-mail newsletter completely misrepresented Ephesians 4:16, the function of the hypothalamus and the effect of stress on the population,

Dr Leaf was true to her usual form.  Her fundamental assumptions remain subtly skewed, forcing each layer of argument into an unbalanced and unstable alignment, and the more she tried to justify herself, the more unstable her arguments became, until eventually they toppled.

There was the obligatory dig at the medical profession, another smug ad hominem dismissal claiming that doctors have ‘negligible training in nutrition’, so doctors don’t understand the ‘whole approach’ that Dr Leaf and other so-called ‘progressive’ food thinkers have.  In reality, doctors have a lot of nutritional training, a darn-sight more than communication pathologists and self-titled cognitive neuroscientists.

And again, Dr Leaf demonstrates her paucity of knowledge or respect for the scripture by again misquoting Proverbs 23:7.  You don’t need to be a Biblical scholar to be able to read a verse of scripture in context, and in context, “as he thinks in his heart [mind], so is he” has got nothing to do with our mind or our thoughts (as I’ve discussed before https://cedwardpitt.com/2015/05/30/dr-caroline-leaf-manhandling-scriptures-again/).

But the critical error which invalidates Dr Leaf’s essay this week is the intellectual dissonance she creates by making two paradoxical claims.

“Your mind, or soul, has one foot in the door of the spirit and one foot in the door of the body. The mind creates coherence between the spirit of man and the body of man, and therefore influences and controls brain/body function and health, and influences spiritual development. Your mind, with its intellectual ability to choose and its emotional authority, controls all physical aspects.”

and

“Fasting has been shown to enhance brain function, and reduce the risk factors for coronary artery disease, stroke, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. For instance, restricting calories can support the induction of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), an enzyme that regulates gene expression and enhances learning and memory.”

Essentially, Dr Leaf is saying in one breath that the mind is separate to the physical brain but controls all of the function of the physical brain and the body, but then moments later says that changes in the body alters the function of the brain which then alters the function of the mind.

So which is it?  You can’t have it both ways?  It’s impossible for the mind to control all physical aspects of the brain if the mind is vulnerable to changes in the brain and body.

The dilemma of Dr Leaf’s mind-brain paradox stems from her defective set of assumptions on the triune being.

“You are intrinsically, brilliantly, and intricately designed with a spirit, soul and body (Genesis 1:26; 1 Thessalonians 5:23). This is known as our triune nature.  Our triune nature is divided into different components. Your spirit is your ‘true you’, or what I call your PerfectlyYou. The spirit has three parts: intuition, conscience and communion (worship). Your soul, which is your mind, also has three parts: intellect, will and emotions. Lastly, your body has three parts: the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, from which the brain and the body form.”

Dr Leaf’s ideas about the triune being are Biblically and scientifically tenuous—more conjecture on Dr Leaf’s part than hard science or solid theology (Read here for more information on this https://cedwardpitt.com/2014/07/25/dr-caroline-leaf-dualism-and-the-triune-being-hypothesis/)  Yet she bases her entire ministry on these shaky assumptions, cherry picking studies and manipulating facts to suit her arguments and ignoring the glaring contradictions that inevitably arise.

So Dr Leaf’s latest offering to her followers again demonstrates the confusion and contradiction that plagues her teaching—layer upon layer of cherry-picked factoids manipulated to prop up her tenuous assumptions. Dr Leaf would do better by listening to scientists and doctors rather than arrogantly dismissing them.

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Lancet confirms fat is bad

Earlier this week, the prestigious medical journal The Lancet published an article about the health effects of obesity [1].

Spoiler alert – obesity kills you.

That sounds a lot like old news.  Why is a leading medical journal wasting space printing studies that tell us what we already know?  Well, up until now, the answer wasn’t as settled as people might have thought.

From the earliest writings of the ancient Greeks, fat people were always considered weak-willed or morally lacking.  Obese people either over-indulged or were lazy sods that deserved the indignation of the clearly morally superior skinny people.  Medical science initially seemed to back up that notion with hard data.  Body Mass Index (or BMI, your weight in kilograms divided by your height in metres squared) between 20 and 25 was the ultimate goal, and if you were above that, you were set to live a shorter and unhappier life.

Then a few years ago, a few studies came out showing that being overweight wasn’t as dire as people thought, and in fact, some studies showed that being overweight and mildly obese offered a small survival advantage over a weight in the “normal” range [2].  This was known as the obesity paradox.

So questions hung in the air like the sickly sweet smell of freshly baked donuts – Did the medical community get obesity wrong?  Were we meant to be cuddly instead of bony?  Were the lard nazi’s tricking us into lifestyles of kale and sit ups under false pretences?

The study by the objectively named Global BMI Mortality Collaboration seems to have definitively answered those questions.  The Global BMI Mortality Collaboration was a collective effort of more than 500 researchers from more than 32 countries, who pooled the resources of 239 different studies involving more than 10 million adults.  The collaborators weeded out more than 6 million people to form a group of 3,951,455 people who had never smoked and had not been diagnosed with a chronic disease before being recruited, and who had survived for more than 5 years after being recruited.  This made their group of participants in this study as statistically robust as possible.  These participants were followed for about 14 years.  Overall, 385,879 of them died.  To see whether obesity had an impact on mortality, they adjusted the raw numbers for age and gender, and calculated the likelihood of a participant dying depending in their BMI.

It isn’t good news for those of us who are of ample proportion.  Compared to those in the healthiest weight range, the most obese had a two-and-half times greater risk of dying from any cause.  Those who were overweight but not obese, which the previous studies suggested may have been ok, had an increased risk of dying too, but only by about 7%.  Obese males had a higher risk of dying than obese females, and obesity was worse for you if you were obese and young rather than obese and old.  Though before all the skinny people start skiting, those with a BMI of under 20 also had a higher mortality.  The best place to be was with a BMI of 20-25.

 

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Statistically speaking, this is a really strong study, so the conclusions it draws are hard to argue with.  It confirms that the BMI of 20-25 is the ideal weight, and that either extreme of body weight is certainly undesirable.

There are a couple of things to note.  Firstly, being overweight still isn’t that bad.  Sure, it’s not ideal like the older studies may have said, but a 7% increase in all-cause mortality isn’t going to particularly cut your life short.  So don’t panic about your love handles just yet.

Secondly, despite the statistical power of this study, it really only answers the single question: Is obesity related to mortality?  It answers it, and it answers it conclusively, but it doesn’t tell us how or why obesity and mortality are related, which are more important questions overall.

Because while it’s necessary to know that obesity, illness and death are related, knowing how they are related can then help us understand the why of obesity, which will then help doctors give patients real information that they can use.

For example, the Lancet study didn’t look at causation.  Is it that obesity causes chronic diseases which then cause early mortality like is the case with smoking?  Or is it that there’s another cause underlying both obesity and chronic disease, with obesity being unfairly framed in a guilt-by-association way?

Obesity Guilty Framed

What about mitigating factors?  If you’re fat but you’re also very fit, what’s your mortality then?  If you have a gastric bypass or a gastric sleeve and you shed a hundred pounds, does your mortality improve?  I’ll try and answer some of these question in future blogs.

Like all good research, this study in The Lancet seems to have generated more questions than answers.  What’s certain is that more research needs to be done.

If you are obese and you are concerned about your health, then talk to your GP or dietician.  Be sensible with your health.  Sure, obesity isn’t great, but you can sometimes do as much damage to yourself through poorly designed weight loss programs than you can with a dozen donuts.

References
[1]        Global BMI Mortality Collaboration. Body-mass index and all-cause mortality: individual participant data meta-analysis of 239 prospective studies in four continents. Lancet 2016 13 july 2016.
[2]        Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H, Graubard BI. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 2013 Jan 2;309(1):71-82.